Friday, August 21, 2020

Article review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Article survey - Essay Example Every one of these machines are utilized for observation, following and recognizable proof purposes. They offer numerous advantages from effectiveness to speed to solid systematic force. Nonetheless, they keep on relinquishing more on the privilege to protection. This paper plates the issue of protection stanzas singular security. The energetic demonstration is a demonstration that should shield blameless American residents from psychological militant assaults. It gives the law implementation organizations all the force important to utilize any methods and instruments available to them to research sedate dealing, fear mongering, and sorted out wrongdoing. This demonstration gives the law the option to utilize observation in their examination against fear based oppression This demonstration likewise give diverse government organizations to share among themselves appropriate and important data (Bennett, 2007). Under this demonstration, and the bank mystery act, the FBI and specialists from IRS are permitted to get to data from the records of monetary foundations to explore and screen any exercises that appear to be dubious without cautioning the money related establishment (David, 2009). Many contend that open reconnaissance help in the fathoming of wrongdoings submitted, and this they state is far much significant than the interruption by the legislature. Senior residents will in general help the legislatures move in open reconnaissance (Locker, 2008). ... This reconnaissance doesn't happen in the open yet happens in private with no or little oversight by the courts by the general population or the congress. Through this force, to gather huge subtleties of private discussions and information, the administration security offices like the FBU and the NSA apply the utilization of PC projects to make forecasts and likes about the conduct of individuals (Lyon and Zureik, 2006). The administration can order dossiers about honest residents however the utilization of delicate information. This information is put away in government databases, and the names of numerous Americans end up erroneous and enlarged in the watch records, which decide whether the individual can fly on business carriers or reestablish travel papers. Trawl observation sabotages singular rights to security and the ability to speak freely, religion and affiliation (Penenberg, 2001). The issue of security and reconnaissance has been an intriguing issue for banter in the media houses. The legislature and a huge level of the residents are not on similar terms with regards to this issue. The administration contends that it is its obligation to secure the residents of the nation against any danger, be it local or outside. The best methods for guaranteeing that this obligation is performed is using reconnaissance to foresee practices and notice correspondence patters that may prompt the turning away of a psychological oppressor assault of an occurrence that will encroach on singular security or the security of the country at entire (Wright and Hert, 2012). Security has been expanded at the air terminals because of the danger that this industry faces from psychological oppressors. This industry has utilized the utilization of new and the most recent innovation that incorporate the utilization of biometric scanners. These are machines that are utilized for acknowledgment purposes. They can

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

This Simple Observation Technique Can Improve Your Communication Skills

This Simple Observation Technique Can Improve Your Communication Skills You know that communication is important. You also know that there are skills you can learn to improve your communication.Many of those skills have been covered before.Whether individually or as part of other topics like interviews.But did you know that there is a simplified method of learning and remembering how to communicate effectively?We have a communication technique which we will teach you. It focuses on the visual cues you can openly see from your audience. If communicating with an individual, the same applies.All you have to do is know what to look for.And the best part is that the name of the technique is itself a tip to help you remember everything.THE APF COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUEBeing something you do daily, communicating is natural. However, it can also be challenging.This is especially so when you consider the increased attention communication is getting.It is being discussed everywhere and the skill is a must-have for any job.As such, you can end up being tense the next time you want to make a good first impression.How does your voice sound? Are you standing in the right posture? Is your face betraying your fear? Are you shaking the person’s hand well?To help you overcome this challenge, here is a technique which will come in handy.Since communication is over 90% non-verbal, it focuses on the non-verbal aspects. We call it the APF technique.It is helpful for both communicating well and understanding how the other party is communicating. Here is the breakdown of it.A â€" ARMSYour arms are one of the parts of your body which are likely to be moving most during a conversation. Of course you can have your arms stationary at your sides. This is however very unlikely.In the course of the communication, non-verbal cues will be released and you may move your hands involuntarily.The movement or position of your arms says a lot. It helps solidify your message and make it clearer. It helps demonstrate what you are talking about.To better see how this works , let’s dig into various hand positions and movements and what they imply. Remember that these work across the board.You can observe them to better understand your audience while also being careful to utilize the right cues to communicate better.Crossed ArmsWhen your audience has crossed arms, it’s easy to assume that they are closed off. Popular explanations for crossing one’s arms is that this means you are not open to the conversation.This has been greatly popularized though it’s not entirely true.There are many reasons someone may have their arms crossed across their chest.1. Being defensive â€" this is one of the commonly-held explanations of crossing your arms. True to the explanation, you will naturally cross your arms when you feel as though you’re being attacked. This is a self-defensive reaction.If you are talking with someone about something then you notice them cross their arms, consider what you have just said. Regardless of how soft your tone is, accusations made against someone else can elicit this reaction.2. Self-restraining â€" when someone is getting really upset and is about to act in anger, he may also cross his arms. This often happens with people who are inclined to bursts of anger but are trying to master the weakness.In an attempt to withhold themselves from doing something they may regret later, they will typically cross their arms. If the anger is too much, you might notice some shaking in their arms.It’s as though they are locking their arms away to avoid punching you in the face.3. Anxious or fearful â€" another cause of crossing the arms is anxiety and fear. Fear itself is the cause of many non-verbal cues which are exhibited in various ways and not just through crossed arms.But one of the ways it comes out is when someone is in a situation which causes them anxiety. The fear of what the end of the situation will be is what makes them anxious.4. Power pose â€" this is well talked about as it is one of the more common r easons behind crossed arms. When you intend to show authority, you may find yourself crossing your arms. The same applies to the person you are talking to.When you’re trying to convince someone of something and they cross their arms, they might be telling you that they will decide later.Or maybe they are not convinced with your explanations. You can expect some tough questions from them.As they do this, they will be making it clear that your progress is subject to their approval. If you find yourself in such a situation, it’s time to change tack.5. Listening analytically â€" very few communication experts mention this. It might be because it’s not widely seen but that doesn’t make it worth ignoring. If you want to see this at work, get someone who is analytical and engage him on a technical subject of his interest.Start a discussion with him about a new development and seek to explain the logic in it. You will see him listening keenly and crossing his arms. Is he telling you he isn’t interested? No.On the contrary, he is very interested. He is actually very engaged and you can see this through other cues like his facial expression.6. Warding off the cold â€" how can communication experts ignore this one? Don’t people all over the world attempt to keep warm by crossing their arms? If it’s really cold, they will also be shaking and maybe rubbing their arms at the same time.This is more of a self-hug to keep warm. And it can certainly happen during conversations when out in the cold. Is the person closing himself off? No.These are some of the reasons people cross their arms. When you see this, do not be quick to conclude that the person is not interested in the conversation.It will be better to check other signs or consider the whole environment before making a conclusion.Clenched Hands (Fists)This is another part of the body to watch for cues to direct your communication appropriately. The hands, though an extension of the arms, work quite separate ly during communication.As with crossed arms, the popular explanation of clenched fists is anger.Yes, people clench their fists when angry. You probably do it too.But there’s more to it. Also, clenched hands can also be located on different areas of the body.And the different parts for resting the hands imply different things.1. In front of the body â€" this can happen with the hands in front of the face or on the table. The reason is usually anxiety though frustration could also cause this action. You will normally see this on someone trying to convince someone else about something but isn’t being successful.When displaying frustration, this is a sign of self-restraint. There is potential for an unwanted expression that needs to be avoided.You can also see this when the person speaking is anxious about not communicating effectively.If you notice this from the person you are talking with, it’s time to digress a little. The subject is making him uncomfortable.You can also try u nderstanding the trigger which caused the response. Do this by asking open-ended questions about the situation.2. On the crotch â€" if someone places their clenched hands over the crotch, they are trying to be confident. They are however not confident because they feel quite vulnerable. This often happens when in front of an authority figure or in front of many people.This can also be a sign of respect. When talking to your boss, for example, you might feel uncomfortable with your hands on the side. Intending to show respect and confidence, your hands can naturally move to this position. Source: PsychMechanicsThe biggest cause is however a feeling of vulnerability. If the person you’re talking with does this, try making him comfortable.Use more gentle words, smile some more and don’t say anything that directly touches on him. Don’t make any negative comment about him.3. Behind the back â€" ever seen the police hold their hands behind their back during on-foot patrols? This is a sign of confidence. They are basically saying that they are in control.All the same, this is not the only interpretation you can glean from observing this. Holding the hands behind the back can also signify vulnerability.Again, this can be easily seen when an employee is speaking with his superior. It therefore largely depends on the context.GesturesHand gestures are another universal mode of communication. Some gestures are signs intended to be meaningful communication.In other cases, the hands are used to help describe something or show differences.Before we look at the different gestu res often used in communication, it’s important to take note of one thing. Some gestures have very different meanings depending on place, culture and other factors.For example, consider these differences in body language across the world:Whereas nodding your head may show agreement or approval, Bulgarians and Greeks use it to indicate a negative.While the Portuguese tug their earlobes to indicate that the food is tasty, doing so in Spain means you’re not paying for your drinks.Although you may think it normal to use your finger for pointing, some Latin American cultures use their lips for pointing. Source: Business InsiderThere are many types of hand gestures which people use for communication. Some work like shortcuts whereas others are “additional communication.”It’s important to know these gestures so you can understand what is being signaled by the person you’re talking with. Moreover, you can also utilize these gestures to better communicate your message.It might interest you to learn the results of one TED Talk research by Science of People. It was found that the least popular TED Talkers used an average of 272 hand gestures during their 18-minute talk. On the other hand, the most popular ones used an average of 465.Do you see the difference? Do you see the connection between the number of hand gestures and the success of the speakers?Well, you too can learn the trick.You can learn what to look out for in other people’s response. You can also learn how to consciously use the same gestures to be successful in your communication.Here are some hand gestures to fami liarize yourself with. The video below the list shows these in action. Watch it for even more hand gestures you can use for more effective communication.Listing â€" this is done when giving a count of something. You often use it when making points. You will show one finger and talk about your first point. You will then go on to show two fingers and make you second point etc.Everything â€" this happens in either of two ways. You can move one hand from one side to the other. Alternatively, you can have both hands draw a big circle in the air. Your hands will start from the same point, go round in opposite directions and meet at the beginning.You â€" this is a great alternative gesture to the pointing usually done with the index finger. Since finger pointing can feel like an attack, you do this using an open hand. Your palm should be facing up as you move your hand slightly towards the person you’re talking with.This list represents a small sample of gestures used by people while spe aking.What’s more, you will avoid being boring. Speaking while your hands are completely rested on your sides make you look rigid and boring. P â€" POSTUREThe second letter of this technique stands for posture. Although it’s easier to see arm movements than posture because of their visibility, someone’s posture also says a lot.Primarily, this can be divided into two: sitting posture and standing posture.It’s necessary to note that matters to do with posture also touch on health. More specifically, the health of your back. A bad sitting or standing posture can result in back pains.You can also consider a third categoryâ€"walkingâ€"but this may not be very necessary. If you can decode someone’s feelings and attitudes by how they sit or stand, their walking will be automatic.For example, someone with little self-confidence will sit in a certain way. The way he positions his shoulders, keeps his head low etc. will most likely be the same while walking.Here is a link to walking postures. You can study it separately to understand it as a single subject.Upright PostureAn upright posture communicates confidence. Whether sitting or standing, the upright posture can be noticed easily.When you have this posture, your head will be held up and your back will be straight. If seated, your back should be in contact with the back of the chair.Apart from confidence, you can also pick cues of interest from someone with an upright posture.Think of how you would sit up in class during an interesting subject. Or during a boring one but then the teacher happened to change topic and cracked a joke.Any time you’re involved in an interesting conversation, you will likely take this position. For your audience, they will respond in a similar manner. Source: Harvard HealthSlouchingThis is a bad sign for you if you’re giving a presentation. Your audience slouching means they are not paying attention. Their minds are not where their physical bodies are.Generally, this posture is the kind that you see on people who are lazy or are working as though forced to. Their movement is slow and you can tell that they are using a lot of energy to make a single step.Slouching may indicate disinterest or a low self-esteem.If the person you’re talking with is not interested in the conversation, you will prove it through other cues like looking away. They may also be checking the time, their phone etc.If it’s a matter of low self-esteem, the response might be slightly different.They may be putting an effort to engage but saying little. It will be as though they don’t have much to talk about. This is despite seeming interested in the conversation.Looking DownIf talking with someone who is constantly looking down, something is going on.The common explanation is that they are trying to hide something. This is often the case. The other possible reason is shyness.This is of course depends on what you’re communicating. Unless you’re hitting on that person, you can safely ignore this.If you’re speaking with someone who is constantly looking down, you will not have a productive exchange with that person.If both of you are standing, suggest walking a little. This will remove the need they have to look at you.If they are lying about something, you may notice a sudden relief and an ease in talking. If there was a contentious issue, the struggle to explain it will cease or at least reduce.If it was a matter of shyness, the change will not be radical. It will be much gradual.F â€" FACELastly, the letter “F.” This stands for facial expressions. This is quite easy considering that the basic emotions to look out for are just six.That’s right.There are 6 basic emotions which people generally exhibit.Everything else flows out of these. Source: VerywellmindThese might be the easiest part of the technique since they require little training.1. Happiness â€" this facial expression is the ultimate proof that what you’re talking about is being well received. Happiness is one of the most sought after feelings. Life is considered by many to be stressful enough that the smallest dose of happiness is always welcome.Note that you don’t need to be a comedian to make someone happy while listening to you.It is not necessarily about making someone laugh as it is about making them like being around you.If you connect with someone well, their smiles will show that they appreciate your company.2. Sadness â€" a sad face is common during mourning. Being a very distinct show of someone’s feeling, you should not ignore it. This is a negative feeling. The person exhibiting this will ignore everything else apart from empathy.If when talking you notice sadness, immediately find out what the problem is. Maybe the person just remembere d something sad.Or you mentioned something which brought up a sad memory.Since you don’t want to dwell on that, change the subject.If you’re planning to speak publicly, it helps to research about the audience beforehand. This way, you will avoid mentioning sensitive subjects unknowingly.3. Fear â€" one of the most powerful emotions is fear. Fear is so powerful that it has been used to manipulate great masses. Politicians often use it during election campaigns to tell their supporters that their opponents’ victory means harm.Sales people and marketers also utilize this emotion. They show you the badness of the problem you’re facing before showing you how their solution will give you relief.When you speak with someone expressing fear, the first thing to do is seek to comfort them. Be empathetic and don’t rush to offer solutions.If the person is willing to talk about the issue, listen. Genuinely pay attention and show that you are concerned.Once they have opened up to you, th en you can bring in your solution. The trust you have earned by listening and showing genuine concern will open the door for your solution to be embraced. Or at least considered.4. Anger â€" depicted in emojis using a red face, this is indeed a danger sign. If your audience is angry with something you said, better be careful. Be ready to get out of their way before something comes flying your direction.If standing in front of the person, move your body to face away from him. Also try moving slightly away from them as you soften your voice. If your words are what have made them angry, be quick to apologize.In case you’re not sure what went wrong, feel free to ask. Watch for any signs of potential aggression. If he tells you what went wrong and you’re not directly responsible, just apologize and change the topic. If necessary, stop the conversation.5. Disgust â€" if disgust is shown towards something, then that’s quite okay. But if towards someone, to some extent, that’s not o kay. Expressing disgust against someone is quite disrespectful. It is better to express disagreement than show disgust.Showing disgust against people is simply an issue of hatred and in most cases, it is uncalled for. This is common when people are trying to force others to agree with their opinions.As such, disgust is a sign of intolerance. It can also result from character assassination.If this is the attitude shown towards you, be careful how you proceed. If the mistake you made is mentioned, respond by showing that you admit the mistake and apologize for it.If the situation worsens, just back off. Another opportunity to communicate and relate will come up.6. Surprise â€" this expression comes up when something good happens unexpectedly. It might be an unexpected gift, a surprise acknowledgment or anything of the sort. Surprise should not be confused with shock.Although surprise can be both positive or negative, it is often positive. Shock on the other hand is only negative.Surpr ise will often be accompanied with joy and characterized by a shout, raised hands, jumping etc. And depending on the context, some people might also hug you.CONCLUSIONAs mentioned at the beginning of this article, the APF technique is purely observational. It focuses on what you see and not what you hear.This does not mean someone’s tone is not important.Furthermore, none of the three cues i.e. arm movements, posture and the face can be interpreted individually.As pointed out in the section about crossed arms, such a move can be misleading.These cues should also be interpreted in context.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Rape Culture - Definition and Examples

Rape culture is present in a society when rape and other forms of sexual violence are common and pervasive, when they are normalized and viewed as inevitable, and when they are trivialized by authority figures, the media and cultural products, and by the majority of members of the society. In a rape culture, the commonality and pervasive nature of sexual violence and rape is fueled by commonly held beliefs, values, and popular myths that encourage and excuse sexual violence committed by men and boys against women and girls. In this context, women and girls consistently experience intimidation and threats of sexual violence and actual sexual violence itself. Also, within a rape culture, the rape culture itself is largely unchallenged and not viewed as a problem by the majority. Sociologists recognize that rape culture is composed primarily of four things: 1. behaviors and practices, 2. the way we think about sex and rape, 3. the way we talk about sex and rape, and 4. cultural representations of sex and sexual assault. Just as whole societies can be described as rape cultures, so too can certain organizations and institutions, and types of institutions, like colleges and universities, prisons, and the military. History of the Term The term, rape culture, was popularized by feminist writers and activists in the U.S. during the 1970s. It first appeared in print in the book Rape: The First Sourcebook for Women, published in 1974, which was one of the first books to discuss rape from the standpoint of womens experiences. A film bearing the title Rape Culture premiered in 1975, and drew attention to how media and popular culture spread mainstream and erroneous beliefs about rape. Women, at the time, used this term to draw attention to the fact that rape and sexual violence were common crimes across the country—not rare or exceptional crimes committed by crazed or damaged individuals, as many believed. Elements of a Rape Culture Sociologists define culture as the values, beliefs, knowledge, behaviors, practices, and material goods that people share in common which help to unify them as a collective. Culture includes common sense beliefs, commonly held expectations and assumptions, rules, social roles, and norms. It also includes our language and how we communicate, and cultural products like music, art, film, television, and music videos, among other things. So, when sociologists consider what rape culture is, and when they study it, they look critically at all of these elements of culture and examine how they may contribute to the existence of a rape culture. Sociologists identify the following behaviors and practices, ideas, discourses, and cultural representations as part of rape culture. Others also exist. Behaviors and Practices Of course, the most consequential behaviors and practices that create a rape culture are acts of sexual assault, but there are others that also play significant roles in creating such a context. These include: Sexualized online harassment and bullyingHarassment and intimidation of, and threats made toward, women and girls, even those which are framed by the aggressor(s) as playful or a jokeDenying that rape is a widespread problemDiminishing or trivializing the trauma and violence of rape and sexual assaultVictim-blamingAccusing victims of lyingSexual objectification of women and girlsMen and boys talking/bragging about sexual assaultEquating masculinity with sexual dominanceRevenge porn, both independent of physical assault and post-assaultIgnoring the sexually violent crimes of celebritiesNeglect of untested rape kits and general non-prioritization of sexual assault among police forcesSupport for accused men and boys over concern for the welfare of victims Beliefs, Assumptions, Myths, and World Views Cultural expectation that men have to coerce women into having sex, and that women and girls want to be coercedBelief that men and boys are entitled to the bodies of women and girlsSocialization of girls that they have a duty to serve the demands of male sexualitySocialization of girls to expect sexual violence and aggressionBelief that discussion of sexual activity and affirmative consent are not sexyBelief that rape and sexual violence are the inevitable expressions of masculinityBelief that rape is an everyday occurrence that cannot be changedFear among victims and their families that they will be stigmatized and further traumatized by reporting the rapeBelief that rape is just rough sexWomen and girls provoke sexual assault with their behavior and dressIt is the responsibility of women to defend themselves and prevent rapeOnly bad men rape and only bad women are rapedThere is no such thing as intimate partner rapeWomen feel slut shame or regret after sex and cry rape Language and Discourse Language that minimizes rape and by calling it sexual intercourse, non-consensual sex, inappropriate behavior, or sexual misconductUsing terms like acquaintance rape or date rape and real rape to make false distinctions about the crime of rapeReferring to trafficked child rape victims as child prostitutes Representations of Rape in Cultural Products Rape jokes and memes that mock rapeThe use of rape as a plot point and for economic gain in film and televisionVideo games with rape scenariosSongs and music videos that glamorize sexual coercion, like Baby, Its Cold Outside and Robin Thickes Blurred Lines Notable Examples of Rape Culture One of the most notable and tragic recent examples of rape culture is the case of Brock Turner, who was convicted of three counts of sexual assault by  the State of California, after assaulting an unconscious woman on the Stanford University campus. Though the seriousness of the crimes for which Turner was convicted carried a possible sentence of up to 14 years in prison, prosecutors request six. The judge, however, sentenced Turner to just six months in county jail, of which he served just three. Media reporting on the case and popular discourse surrounding it were rife with evidence of rape culture. Turner was repeatedly depicted with a photo that showed him seated for a portrait, smiling while wearing a suit and tie, and was frequently described as a Stanford athlete. His father trivialized the brutal sexual assault his son committed in a letter to the court, referring to it as 20 minutes of action, and many, including the judge, suggested that a sentence appropriate to the crime would unjustly derail Turners athletic and academic promise. Meanwhile, the victim, never identified in court, was criticized for being intoxicated, and virtually no concern for her welfare, nor a desire for justice for the crimes perpetrated against her, were expressed in the mainstream press, by Turner, his defense team, or the sitting judge who decided the case. Other notable examples unfortunately abound, like the case of Kesha, who has been held legally obligated by a U.S. court to fulfill a record contract with her accused rapist/record producer, Dr. Luke, and the problem of heightened rates of sexual assault on college and university campuses across the U.S., as documented in the film The Hunting Ground. The election of President Donald Trump, a man repeatedly accused of sexual assault, and who has spoken frankly about sexually assaulting women—the now-infamous grab them by the p*ssy tape—is an example of how entrenched and normalized rape culture is in U.S. society. In 2017, a string of sexual assault accusations against powerful men in media, politics, and other industries has led to more and more conversations, on social media and elsewhere, about the pervasiveness of rape culture in our society.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Muslim Women And Their Experiences Of A Woman s Life

Childbearing is the most spiritually and culturally important aspect of a woman’s life. Birth experience is constantly described as a very important event of a powerful psychological significance in a woman’s life. The article mainly focuses on the experiences of health and illness among Arab-American immigrants. In this article, many women participated in a study and they expressed their opinions about their pregnancy and the feelings they experienced after becoming mother. The study focused on Jordanian Muslim women and their experiences of childbirth. In this article, the authors described family and religion, maternal child health and perinatal health care in Jordan where they showed that different people have different opinions about the cultural meanings of childbirth. This combing study frames on a constellation of other studies which are cultural (Khalaf Callister,1997) Research participants were childbearing women from many different countries. The question of the research was, â€Å"To Jordanian Muslim women what is the meaning of childbearing experience† (Khallaf Callister,1997) Authors Khalaf and Callister (2) predicted that 90% of the population who live in Jordan are Muslims and they maintain Islamic laws in their lives. People who follows and obeys the will of God(Allah) are Muslims. The rules of Islam are articulated in the Quran which defines the five mainstays of Islam which includes prayer also known as salat, almsgiving or zakat, fasting or in otherShow MoreRelatedThe Gypsies Case Study Answers1376 Words   |  6 Pagesbetween the men and the woman. In the book The Gypsies by Jan Yoor, they are separated by gender and age through adolescence, puberty, and through adulthood. This is seen specifically in the responsibilities or tasks given to both genders. The women are in charge of household duties. This includes things such as cooking and cleaning. 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Iom Report Impact on Nursing Free Essays

Difference Between Nurses at the Associate vs. Baccalaureate Degree Level To this day there are three types of programs that exist to allow an individual to practice as an RN: the diploma, the Associate degree, and the Baccalaureate degree. The diploma route is a hospital based program that prepares an individual to sit for the NCLEX-RN. We will write a custom essay sample on Iom Report Impact on Nursing or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is usually a two to three year program. It prepares the student for nursing jobs for delivering direct patient care in the hospital or other inpatient setting. The associate route RN is typically a two-year program that focuses on teaching the student technical nursing skills with basic education requirements in math, science, and English. It prepares the student for entry-level nursing jobs in hospitals and inpatient facilities. The baccalaureate route RN holds the higher level of education in nursing. It is achieved through a more rigorous educational study through research and evidence-based practices that prepares them for leadership and management positions. In comparing the associate degree nurse vs. he baccalaureate degree nurse, in order to increase patient safety, the associate degree nurse should attain their baccalaureate degree for standardization in with our continually changing health care systems. In looking back in history, the associate degree of nursing (ADN) was designed by Mildred Montag in 1952 to help the nursing shortage as a collegiate alternative (Creasia and Friberg, 2011, p. 27). It started as a pilot project at s even sites that has now grown to be very successful and desirable when compared to the 4-year baccalaureate route. The 2-year associate degree route is sought out more for its cost effectiveness while achieving the same goal of being able to take the NCLEX-RN for licensure. Especially as studies from the Committee of the American Society of Nursing Service Administration noted that they saw no difference among beginning practitioners from BSN, ADN, or diploma programs (Schank and Stollenwerk, 1988, p. 254). The key word here is beginning practitioner, there is no difference between the performances of the two. However, if an individual desires to advance in their nursing career, the associate degree separates the baccalaureate degree holding RN from a higher position and pay for example in a managerial or supervisory role. The baccalaureate degree was intended by the ANA to be the entry point into professional nursing practice (ANA, 1965). Those who choose the BSN route are prepared to practice nursing in beginning leadership positions. In order to take on a leadership role, the baccalaureate holding nurse needs to have a more in depth education with skills in communication, leadership, and critical thinking. The inclusion of public health in the BSN program requires a nurse to be adequately knowledgeable to educate beyond the individual onto the communities and population. Not only is the BSN nurse able to communicate beyond the individual but also better able to collaborate with those holding higher educational degrees as well. Being able to communicate clearly the knowledge learned, through critical thinking based on evidence-based practices is what differentiates an associate degree from a baccalaureate degree nurse. Because of these qualities, it also affords them the ability to take on leadership roles. Higher education enables BSN nurses to go outside the small circle of practice. Studies have shown that patient outcomes can be attributed to higher levels of nursing education. More knowledge enhances the nurses’ concept of nursing as a profession to better adapt to a continually changing health care environment. More knowledge enhances the nurses’ concept of nursing as a profession to better adapt to a continually changing health care environment and by having experience in research of evidence-based practices gives the nurse a firm foundation. Their knowledge is broader to help promote positive patient outcomes (Spencer, 2008, p. 08). In one study they found a â€Å"10% increase in proportion of BSN nurses was associated with a 5% decrease in likelihood of death† (Ridley, 2008, p. 152). One aspect of the BSN student that the ADN student does not acquire is delving into evidence based practices. The BSN nurse, therefore, is transitioned from the basic clinical aspects of nursing from the individual patient onto a broader spectrum. Research enables the RN to become more reflective by evaluating past clinical experiences, honing in on critical thinking skills to help better understand our changing healthcare environment. In evaluating the table from the studies of the Examples of Activities included in the 1999 RN Practice Analysis with Average Frequencies of Performance (Smith, 2002, p. 493), I found that the tasks that required more critical thinking and collaboration with higher disciplinary teams, were slightly higher amongst the BSN group. The average of 3. 73(BSN) vs. 3. 40 (ADN) would consult with other health care providers about client care, average 3. 15 (BSN) vs. 2. 92 (ADN) would act as the clients advocate, and 0. 85 (BSN) vs. 0. 5 (ADN) would plan and develop a health promotion program based on a community assessment (Smith, 2002, p. 493). Many of the activities shown on the table reflect that there were not many differences among the ADN and BSN nurse. The BSN nurse has better communication skills would collaborate with other disciplinary teams and act more often as a patient advocate. Because the BSN nurse also has a more rich understanding of evidence based practices and research, he /she would be more likely assist in developing a health promotion program. In conclusion, even though it is more cost efficient in obtaining an associates degree or even diploma to qualify for RN licensure, the baccalaureate degree should be the standard goal. Our health care system is continually changing, it is the responsibility of the nurse to also strive to grow with our environmental changes by achieving higher education. Not only does the BSN nurse qualify for higher positions in the health care system, but it also produces better patient outcomes. References American Nurses Association. (1965). A position paper. New York, NY: American Nurses Association; 1965. Creasia, J. L. , Friberg, E. (2011). Conceptual Foundations: The Bridge to Professional Nursing Practice, 5th Edition. , 2011. Pageburst Online. Web. 21 February 2013 . Ridley, R. T. (2008). The Relationship Between Nurse Education Level and Patient Safety: An Integrative Review. Journal of Nursing Education, 47, 149-156. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com. library. gcu. edu:2048/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? sid=e2ae0a10-62a7-418b-ab46-32ad87faa068%40sessionmgr113vid=4hid=3 Schank, M. J. , Stollenwerk, R. (1988, June 1, 1988). The Leadership/Management Role: A Differentiating Factor for ADN/BSN Programs? Journal of Nursing Education, 27, 253-257. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com. library. gcu. edu:2048/eds/detail? sid=f2a65c9b-fb18-4dd4-ba84-717a1f32bb14%40sessionmgr4vid=5hid=102bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzhAN=1988078948 Smith, J. E. (2002). Analysis of Differences in Entry-Level RN Practice by Educational Preparation. Journal of Nursing Education, 41, 491-494. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com. library. gcu. edu:2048/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? sid=a9aecc8d-204c-4c13-b26c-12ce8475eea0%40sessionmgr111vid=4hid=4 How to cite Iom Report Impact on Nursing, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

The Crusades Essays - 2nd Millennium, Christianization, Crusades

The Crusades The crusades were military expeditions launched against the Muslims by the Christians in an attempt to regain the Holy Land. They took place between 1095 A.D. and 1270 A.D. It was one of the most violent periods in the history of mankind. The starting point of the crusades was on November 18, 1095 A.D. when Pope Urban II opened the Council of Clermont. On November 27, outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand, the Pope made an important speech . He called upon everyone to help the Christians in the east to restore peace. The crowd's response was very positive. Garments were cut into crosses which were attached to people's shoulders in an imitation of Christ (Matthew 10:38).(1) The original object of the First Crusade was to help Christian churches in the east. The new goal became to free the Holy Land from Muslim control, especially Jerusalem. Pope Urban II stayed in France until September 1096 to provide leadership and guidance for the members of the First Crusade. He urged churchmen to preach the cross in France. Urban wanted the crusading army to be mostly made up of knights and other military personnel. Since the news of his speech at Clermont spread through the west, people from all social classes and occupations joined the Crusade. As a result of Urban losing control of personnel, violence was launched against the Jews of northern France. This violence was mostly instigated by bands of the urban and rural poor led by men like Peter the Hermit and Walter Sans-Avoir. These groups lacked supplies and discipline. They attempted to reach Coneztinople but most of them never got that far. The leaders in lands which they passed through were frightened and killed many of the crusading bands. Some did get to Coneztinople and traveled across the Bosphorus in August 1096. There they split into two groups. One tried to overtake Nicaea and was unsuccessful. The other was ambushed and slaughtered near Civetot in October. The remaining crusaders retreated to Coneztinople and joined the second wave of the Crusade. The crusaders were eager to start the journey to Jerusalem but they needed to capture the Anatolian Turkish capital of Nicaea first because it blocked the road that would be their main supply route. It was held by Seljuk Turks. In May 1097, the crusaders attacked Nicaea. The Turks realized that they were defeated and agreed to give the city to the Byzantines in exchange for the lives of their men. The Byzantines agreed to this and on June 18, Nicaea was under Byzantine control. The leaders of the crusade disagreed and wanted to slaughter the Turks because they were enemies of Christ.(2) On June 30, 1097, the crusaders were ambushed at the city of Dorylaeum by Seljuk Turks led by Kilij Arslam the Seljuk Sultan. The fight continued until July 1. The crusaders won a big victory and nearly wiped out the Turkish force. This victory opened up the way to Anatolia. The crusaders attacked Anitoch in northern Syria on October 21, 1097. "This was the main obstacle on the road to Jerusalem."(3) In a long and gruesome battle, the city finally fell on June 2, 1098. The crusaders were quickly attacked by a new Turkish army from Al Mawsil. They arrived too late to revive Anitoch's Turkish defenders and they were forced to retreat on June 28. The starting date for the march to Jerusalem was set for November 1, 1098 but was delayed by an epidemic as well as fighting to the south of Anitoch. On January 13, 1099 the commander-in-chief, Count Raymond IV of Toulouse, led the crusaders' march to Jerusalem. They avoided attacks on cities to conserve forces. In May 1099 they reached the northern border of Palestine. On June 7 they camped on the summit of a hill where they could see Jerusalem. Many soldiers had tears of joy on that day. The hill was named Montjoie. Jerusalem was well fortified and only vulnerable from the north and the southwest. On June 13 they tried to storm Jerusalem but were driven back because of insufficient supplies. Extreme heat and a water shortage lowered morale. A priest called Peter Desiderius told them that if they fasted and held