Thursday, May 21, 2020

Rape Culture - Definition and Examples

Rape culture is present in a society when rape and other forms of sexual violence are common and pervasive, when they are normalized and viewed as inevitable, and when they are trivialized by authority figures, the media and cultural products, and by the majority of members of the society. In a rape culture, the commonality and pervasive nature of sexual violence and rape is fueled by commonly held beliefs, values, and popular myths that encourage and excuse sexual violence committed by men and boys against women and girls. In this context, women and girls consistently experience intimidation and threats of sexual violence and actual sexual violence itself. Also, within a rape culture, the rape culture itself is largely unchallenged and not viewed as a problem by the majority. Sociologists recognize that rape culture is composed primarily of four things: 1. behaviors and practices, 2. the way we think about sex and rape, 3. the way we talk about sex and rape, and 4. cultural representations of sex and sexual assault. Just as whole societies can be described as rape cultures, so too can certain organizations and institutions, and types of institutions, like colleges and universities, prisons, and the military. History of the Term The term, rape culture, was popularized by feminist writers and activists in the U.S. during the 1970s. It first appeared in print in the book Rape: The First Sourcebook for Women, published in 1974, which was one of the first books to discuss rape from the standpoint of womens experiences. A film bearing the title Rape Culture premiered in 1975, and drew attention to how media and popular culture spread mainstream and erroneous beliefs about rape. Women, at the time, used this term to draw attention to the fact that rape and sexual violence were common crimes across the country—not rare or exceptional crimes committed by crazed or damaged individuals, as many believed. Elements of a Rape Culture Sociologists define culture as the values, beliefs, knowledge, behaviors, practices, and material goods that people share in common which help to unify them as a collective. Culture includes common sense beliefs, commonly held expectations and assumptions, rules, social roles, and norms. It also includes our language and how we communicate, and cultural products like music, art, film, television, and music videos, among other things. So, when sociologists consider what rape culture is, and when they study it, they look critically at all of these elements of culture and examine how they may contribute to the existence of a rape culture. Sociologists identify the following behaviors and practices, ideas, discourses, and cultural representations as part of rape culture. Others also exist. Behaviors and Practices Of course, the most consequential behaviors and practices that create a rape culture are acts of sexual assault, but there are others that also play significant roles in creating such a context. These include: Sexualized online harassment and bullyingHarassment and intimidation of, and threats made toward, women and girls, even those which are framed by the aggressor(s) as playful or a jokeDenying that rape is a widespread problemDiminishing or trivializing the trauma and violence of rape and sexual assaultVictim-blamingAccusing victims of lyingSexual objectification of women and girlsMen and boys talking/bragging about sexual assaultEquating masculinity with sexual dominanceRevenge porn, both independent of physical assault and post-assaultIgnoring the sexually violent crimes of celebritiesNeglect of untested rape kits and general non-prioritization of sexual assault among police forcesSupport for accused men and boys over concern for the welfare of victims Beliefs, Assumptions, Myths, and World Views Cultural expectation that men have to coerce women into having sex, and that women and girls want to be coercedBelief that men and boys are entitled to the bodies of women and girlsSocialization of girls that they have a duty to serve the demands of male sexualitySocialization of girls to expect sexual violence and aggressionBelief that discussion of sexual activity and affirmative consent are not sexyBelief that rape and sexual violence are the inevitable expressions of masculinityBelief that rape is an everyday occurrence that cannot be changedFear among victims and their families that they will be stigmatized and further traumatized by reporting the rapeBelief that rape is just rough sexWomen and girls provoke sexual assault with their behavior and dressIt is the responsibility of women to defend themselves and prevent rapeOnly bad men rape and only bad women are rapedThere is no such thing as intimate partner rapeWomen feel slut shame or regret after sex and cry rape Language and Discourse Language that minimizes rape and by calling it sexual intercourse, non-consensual sex, inappropriate behavior, or sexual misconductUsing terms like acquaintance rape or date rape and real rape to make false distinctions about the crime of rapeReferring to trafficked child rape victims as child prostitutes Representations of Rape in Cultural Products Rape jokes and memes that mock rapeThe use of rape as a plot point and for economic gain in film and televisionVideo games with rape scenariosSongs and music videos that glamorize sexual coercion, like Baby, Its Cold Outside and Robin Thickes Blurred Lines Notable Examples of Rape Culture One of the most notable and tragic recent examples of rape culture is the case of Brock Turner, who was convicted of three counts of sexual assault by  the State of California, after assaulting an unconscious woman on the Stanford University campus. Though the seriousness of the crimes for which Turner was convicted carried a possible sentence of up to 14 years in prison, prosecutors request six. The judge, however, sentenced Turner to just six months in county jail, of which he served just three. Media reporting on the case and popular discourse surrounding it were rife with evidence of rape culture. Turner was repeatedly depicted with a photo that showed him seated for a portrait, smiling while wearing a suit and tie, and was frequently described as a Stanford athlete. His father trivialized the brutal sexual assault his son committed in a letter to the court, referring to it as 20 minutes of action, and many, including the judge, suggested that a sentence appropriate to the crime would unjustly derail Turners athletic and academic promise. Meanwhile, the victim, never identified in court, was criticized for being intoxicated, and virtually no concern for her welfare, nor a desire for justice for the crimes perpetrated against her, were expressed in the mainstream press, by Turner, his defense team, or the sitting judge who decided the case. Other notable examples unfortunately abound, like the case of Kesha, who has been held legally obligated by a U.S. court to fulfill a record contract with her accused rapist/record producer, Dr. Luke, and the problem of heightened rates of sexual assault on college and university campuses across the U.S., as documented in the film The Hunting Ground. The election of President Donald Trump, a man repeatedly accused of sexual assault, and who has spoken frankly about sexually assaulting women—the now-infamous grab them by the p*ssy tape—is an example of how entrenched and normalized rape culture is in U.S. society. In 2017, a string of sexual assault accusations against powerful men in media, politics, and other industries has led to more and more conversations, on social media and elsewhere, about the pervasiveness of rape culture in our society.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Muslim Women And Their Experiences Of A Woman s Life

Childbearing is the most spiritually and culturally important aspect of a woman’s life. Birth experience is constantly described as a very important event of a powerful psychological significance in a woman’s life. The article mainly focuses on the experiences of health and illness among Arab-American immigrants. In this article, many women participated in a study and they expressed their opinions about their pregnancy and the feelings they experienced after becoming mother. The study focused on Jordanian Muslim women and their experiences of childbirth. In this article, the authors described family and religion, maternal child health and perinatal health care in Jordan where they showed that different people have different opinions about the cultural meanings of childbirth. This combing study frames on a constellation of other studies which are cultural (Khalaf Callister,1997) Research participants were childbearing women from many different countries. The question of the research was, â€Å"To Jordanian Muslim women what is the meaning of childbearing experience† (Khallaf Callister,1997) Authors Khalaf and Callister (2) predicted that 90% of the population who live in Jordan are Muslims and they maintain Islamic laws in their lives. People who follows and obeys the will of God(Allah) are Muslims. The rules of Islam are articulated in the Quran which defines the five mainstays of Islam which includes prayer also known as salat, almsgiving or zakat, fasting or in otherShow MoreRelatedThe Gypsies Case Study Answers1376 Words   |  6 Pagesbetween the men and the woman. In the book The Gypsies by Jan Yoor, they are separated by gender and age through adolescence, puberty, and through adulthood. This is seen specifically in the responsibilities or tasks given to both genders. The women are in charge of household duties. This includes things such as cooking and cleaning. 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Iom Report Impact on Nursing Free Essays

Difference Between Nurses at the Associate vs. Baccalaureate Degree Level To this day there are three types of programs that exist to allow an individual to practice as an RN: the diploma, the Associate degree, and the Baccalaureate degree. The diploma route is a hospital based program that prepares an individual to sit for the NCLEX-RN. We will write a custom essay sample on Iom Report Impact on Nursing or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is usually a two to three year program. It prepares the student for nursing jobs for delivering direct patient care in the hospital or other inpatient setting. The associate route RN is typically a two-year program that focuses on teaching the student technical nursing skills with basic education requirements in math, science, and English. It prepares the student for entry-level nursing jobs in hospitals and inpatient facilities. The baccalaureate route RN holds the higher level of education in nursing. It is achieved through a more rigorous educational study through research and evidence-based practices that prepares them for leadership and management positions. In comparing the associate degree nurse vs. he baccalaureate degree nurse, in order to increase patient safety, the associate degree nurse should attain their baccalaureate degree for standardization in with our continually changing health care systems. In looking back in history, the associate degree of nursing (ADN) was designed by Mildred Montag in 1952 to help the nursing shortage as a collegiate alternative (Creasia and Friberg, 2011, p. 27). It started as a pilot project at s even sites that has now grown to be very successful and desirable when compared to the 4-year baccalaureate route. The 2-year associate degree route is sought out more for its cost effectiveness while achieving the same goal of being able to take the NCLEX-RN for licensure. Especially as studies from the Committee of the American Society of Nursing Service Administration noted that they saw no difference among beginning practitioners from BSN, ADN, or diploma programs (Schank and Stollenwerk, 1988, p. 254). The key word here is beginning practitioner, there is no difference between the performances of the two. However, if an individual desires to advance in their nursing career, the associate degree separates the baccalaureate degree holding RN from a higher position and pay for example in a managerial or supervisory role. The baccalaureate degree was intended by the ANA to be the entry point into professional nursing practice (ANA, 1965). Those who choose the BSN route are prepared to practice nursing in beginning leadership positions. In order to take on a leadership role, the baccalaureate holding nurse needs to have a more in depth education with skills in communication, leadership, and critical thinking. The inclusion of public health in the BSN program requires a nurse to be adequately knowledgeable to educate beyond the individual onto the communities and population. Not only is the BSN nurse able to communicate beyond the individual but also better able to collaborate with those holding higher educational degrees as well. Being able to communicate clearly the knowledge learned, through critical thinking based on evidence-based practices is what differentiates an associate degree from a baccalaureate degree nurse. Because of these qualities, it also affords them the ability to take on leadership roles. Higher education enables BSN nurses to go outside the small circle of practice. Studies have shown that patient outcomes can be attributed to higher levels of nursing education. More knowledge enhances the nurses’ concept of nursing as a profession to better adapt to a continually changing health care environment. More knowledge enhances the nurses’ concept of nursing as a profession to better adapt to a continually changing health care environment and by having experience in research of evidence-based practices gives the nurse a firm foundation. Their knowledge is broader to help promote positive patient outcomes (Spencer, 2008, p. 08). In one study they found a â€Å"10% increase in proportion of BSN nurses was associated with a 5% decrease in likelihood of death† (Ridley, 2008, p. 152). One aspect of the BSN student that the ADN student does not acquire is delving into evidence based practices. The BSN nurse, therefore, is transitioned from the basic clinical aspects of nursing from the individual patient onto a broader spectrum. Research enables the RN to become more reflective by evaluating past clinical experiences, honing in on critical thinking skills to help better understand our changing healthcare environment. In evaluating the table from the studies of the Examples of Activities included in the 1999 RN Practice Analysis with Average Frequencies of Performance (Smith, 2002, p. 493), I found that the tasks that required more critical thinking and collaboration with higher disciplinary teams, were slightly higher amongst the BSN group. The average of 3. 73(BSN) vs. 3. 40 (ADN) would consult with other health care providers about client care, average 3. 15 (BSN) vs. 2. 92 (ADN) would act as the clients advocate, and 0. 85 (BSN) vs. 0. 5 (ADN) would plan and develop a health promotion program based on a community assessment (Smith, 2002, p. 493). Many of the activities shown on the table reflect that there were not many differences among the ADN and BSN nurse. The BSN nurse has better communication skills would collaborate with other disciplinary teams and act more often as a patient advocate. Because the BSN nurse also has a more rich understanding of evidence based practices and research, he /she would be more likely assist in developing a health promotion program. In conclusion, even though it is more cost efficient in obtaining an associates degree or even diploma to qualify for RN licensure, the baccalaureate degree should be the standard goal. Our health care system is continually changing, it is the responsibility of the nurse to also strive to grow with our environmental changes by achieving higher education. Not only does the BSN nurse qualify for higher positions in the health care system, but it also produces better patient outcomes. References American Nurses Association. (1965). A position paper. New York, NY: American Nurses Association; 1965. Creasia, J. L. , Friberg, E. (2011). Conceptual Foundations: The Bridge to Professional Nursing Practice, 5th Edition. , 2011. Pageburst Online. Web. 21 February 2013 . Ridley, R. T. (2008). The Relationship Between Nurse Education Level and Patient Safety: An Integrative Review. Journal of Nursing Education, 47, 149-156. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com. library. gcu. edu:2048/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? sid=e2ae0a10-62a7-418b-ab46-32ad87faa068%40sessionmgr113vid=4hid=3 Schank, M. J. , Stollenwerk, R. (1988, June 1, 1988). The Leadership/Management Role: A Differentiating Factor for ADN/BSN Programs? Journal of Nursing Education, 27, 253-257. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com. library. gcu. edu:2048/eds/detail? sid=f2a65c9b-fb18-4dd4-ba84-717a1f32bb14%40sessionmgr4vid=5hid=102bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzhAN=1988078948 Smith, J. E. (2002). Analysis of Differences in Entry-Level RN Practice by Educational Preparation. Journal of Nursing Education, 41, 491-494. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com. library. gcu. edu:2048/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? sid=a9aecc8d-204c-4c13-b26c-12ce8475eea0%40sessionmgr111vid=4hid=4 How to cite Iom Report Impact on Nursing, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

The Crusades Essays - 2nd Millennium, Christianization, Crusades

The Crusades The crusades were military expeditions launched against the Muslims by the Christians in an attempt to regain the Holy Land. They took place between 1095 A.D. and 1270 A.D. It was one of the most violent periods in the history of mankind. The starting point of the crusades was on November 18, 1095 A.D. when Pope Urban II opened the Council of Clermont. On November 27, outside the French city of Clermont-Ferrand, the Pope made an important speech . He called upon everyone to help the Christians in the east to restore peace. The crowd's response was very positive. Garments were cut into crosses which were attached to people's shoulders in an imitation of Christ (Matthew 10:38).(1) The original object of the First Crusade was to help Christian churches in the east. The new goal became to free the Holy Land from Muslim control, especially Jerusalem. Pope Urban II stayed in France until September 1096 to provide leadership and guidance for the members of the First Crusade. He urged churchmen to preach the cross in France. Urban wanted the crusading army to be mostly made up of knights and other military personnel. Since the news of his speech at Clermont spread through the west, people from all social classes and occupations joined the Crusade. As a result of Urban losing control of personnel, violence was launched against the Jews of northern France. This violence was mostly instigated by bands of the urban and rural poor led by men like Peter the Hermit and Walter Sans-Avoir. These groups lacked supplies and discipline. They attempted to reach Coneztinople but most of them never got that far. The leaders in lands which they passed through were frightened and killed many of the crusading bands. Some did get to Coneztinople and traveled across the Bosphorus in August 1096. There they split into two groups. One tried to overtake Nicaea and was unsuccessful. The other was ambushed and slaughtered near Civetot in October. The remaining crusaders retreated to Coneztinople and joined the second wave of the Crusade. The crusaders were eager to start the journey to Jerusalem but they needed to capture the Anatolian Turkish capital of Nicaea first because it blocked the road that would be their main supply route. It was held by Seljuk Turks. In May 1097, the crusaders attacked Nicaea. The Turks realized that they were defeated and agreed to give the city to the Byzantines in exchange for the lives of their men. The Byzantines agreed to this and on June 18, Nicaea was under Byzantine control. The leaders of the crusade disagreed and wanted to slaughter the Turks because they were enemies of Christ.(2) On June 30, 1097, the crusaders were ambushed at the city of Dorylaeum by Seljuk Turks led by Kilij Arslam the Seljuk Sultan. The fight continued until July 1. The crusaders won a big victory and nearly wiped out the Turkish force. This victory opened up the way to Anatolia. The crusaders attacked Anitoch in northern Syria on October 21, 1097. "This was the main obstacle on the road to Jerusalem."(3) In a long and gruesome battle, the city finally fell on June 2, 1098. The crusaders were quickly attacked by a new Turkish army from Al Mawsil. They arrived too late to revive Anitoch's Turkish defenders and they were forced to retreat on June 28. The starting date for the march to Jerusalem was set for November 1, 1098 but was delayed by an epidemic as well as fighting to the south of Anitoch. On January 13, 1099 the commander-in-chief, Count Raymond IV of Toulouse, led the crusaders' march to Jerusalem. They avoided attacks on cities to conserve forces. In May 1099 they reached the northern border of Palestine. On June 7 they camped on the summit of a hill where they could see Jerusalem. Many soldiers had tears of joy on that day. The hill was named Montjoie. Jerusalem was well fortified and only vulnerable from the north and the southwest. On June 13 they tried to storm Jerusalem but were driven back because of insufficient supplies. Extreme heat and a water shortage lowered morale. A priest called Peter Desiderius told them that if they fasted and held

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Benedict Arnold

The painting above is of Benedict Arnold. Arnold liked to lead and command his men on the front lines. The Battle of Saratoga was a major battle in the American Revolution; it helped persuade the French into signing a Treaty with the United States that helped turn the on the British. The open-field battle style was favored by the British. The Americans were almost out of options, until their savior General Benedict Arnold rode in. Arnold personally led the charge during the Battle of Saratoga, however Arnold was wounded during the final assault in his left knee. While the American troops surrounded and captured forces, Arnold laid in pain on the battlefield. Gates took the credit for the victory at Saratoga and didnt mention Arnold in his reenactment to General Washington. The events of the two years previous to Saratoga were very influential to Benedict Arnold. During that time Benedict Arnold and George Washington were planning a attack and invasion of Canada. The route to Montreal was easy, but the trip Quebec was much tougher. During Washingtons meetings with Arnold, he was examined Benedict very carefully, and he liked what he saw. In Washingtons mind there wasnt a better man for the job than Arnold, to lead the charge into Quebec. Arnold was given independent command from Washington to lead troops. Arnold had many conflicts with Congress in his lifetime. He continually battled with members that did not like him for various reasons. But Congress decided to change the rules and they didnt promote Arnold. Five other men were inferior to Arnold when it came to military intelligence. Congress had made Arnold look like a fool, and he resented it. In one instance, Arnold had put a request into Congress for reimbursement for supplies that he bought with his own money during his march to Quebec. But Congress wasnt going to pay a la...

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The Physician Hippocrates and Greek Medicine

The Physician Hippocrates and Greek Medicine Hippocrates, the father of medicine, may have lived from c. 460-377 B.C., a period covering the Age of Pericles and the Persian War. Like other details about Hippocrates, we really know very little beyond the fact that he is considered a great physician and was counted the greatest by the ancient Greeks. Born in Cos, site of an important temple of Asclepius, god of medicine, Hippocrates may have studied medicine with his father. He traveled around Greece training medical students that there are scientific reasons for ailments. Before him, medical conditions were attributed to divine intervention. Hippocrates maintained that all diseases have natural causes. He made diagnoses and prescribed simple treatments like diet, hygiene, and sleep. Hippocrates is the author of the saying Life is short, and the Art long (from his Aphorisms). The name Hippocrates is familiar because of the oath that doctors take (Hippocratic Oath) and a body of early medical treatises that are attributed to Hippocrates (Hippocratic corpus), which includes the Aphorisms. Hippocrates and Humoral Theory Quiz Hippocrates Medical Texts Hippocrates is on the list of Most Important People to Know in Ancient History. Also Known As: The Father of Medicine, the divine old man, Hippocrates of Cos Examples: Hippocrates of Cos isnt the mathematician Hippocrates of Chios. Go to Other Ancient / Classical History Glossary pages beginning with the letter a | b | c | d | e | f | g | h | i | j | k | l | m | n | o | p | q | r | s | t | u | v | wxyz

Friday, February 14, 2020

AMOURETTE SPOTLIGHT Hipster Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

AMOURETTE SPOTLIGHT Hipster - Assignment Example A lot of governing bodies have made companies responsible towards emission norms and set standards for declaration of their environmental compliances. Importance of corporate social responsibility is also reflected in the gaining momentum of mergers and acquisition dealings considering investments in socially responsible activities. Despite such rise in the value of CSR, the question remains as to why the companies find it important to engage and socially responsible behaviour when it actually does not add any financially visible value to the firm. Also, it is questionable whether these firms actually believe in acting socially or is it simply a means to gaining stakeholder support and shareholder (Font et al., 2012). The business world is plagued with multitude of problems ranging from accounting frauds, environmental issues and social concerns to corporate irregularities. In this scenario, importance of CSR reporting cannot be eliminated. This paper aims to examine whether the issu ing such CSR reports actually engage in socially responsible behaviour or merely try to convince stakeholders and gain investor support. It therefore highlights the role of business ethics and highlights the importance of CSR reporting. CSR for Increased profitability It is undoubted that companies operate in an environment where existence is subject to free play of competition between major players within any industry. In such unregulated attempt towards achieving greater market share, it is essential that government and media become aware of their role to act as controllers of social consequence of these activities. Their role has become significant and influential in today’s times. These groups of people have high power to put extreme pressure of major companies to adhere to environmental and social standards. This has resulted in the fact that CSR has emerged to be one of the inescapable priorities of businesses. Research has also shown that when managers and directors ta ke concern for employees and consumer welfare, they gain better support of their work staff in terms of productivity and loyalty than firms who have no consideration apart from earning profits. CSR in contemporary organizations There has been a sharp rise in CSR reporting in the recent decade. KPMG international has reported that about 95% of the largest 250 companies in the world issue standalone CSR reports as of 2011 data (Mahoney, 2012). This calls for a need to assess as to why companies have started reporting for CSR activities in such large numbers over their issues and sustainability efforts. The prime reason observed behind such rise in voluntary CSR reporting is the increasing pressure from various internal as well as external stakeholders on companies to emerge as good corporate citizens. It is known that engagement in CSR initiative has costs associated with it which might tax its competitive market position. Alternatively, the firm can benefit from the profits that accr ue to companies for being responsible corporate citizens like retention of employees, positive consumer behaviour and investments and higher profits. CSR reports are issued with a view that such information apart from other information that is available to stakeholders, shall act towards the benefit of the company. The major benefit arising out of this is believed to be good company reputation. KPMG reported that the major reason behind CSR reporting is brand building and reputation enhancement. It is also likely that